The Republic of Yemen is situated in the
South of the Arabian Peninsula between the latitudes 12-20 of
the Northern Hemisphere and the longitudes 41-54 East of
Greenwich. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is situated to the
North of Yemen, to the South of the Republic is the
Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean, in the West the Red Sea. The
Sultanate of Oman borders the Republic of Yemen to
the East, which also stretches to the Ruba Al-Khali (the
The area of the Republic of Yemen covers
555.000 km2 (excluding the Ruba Al-Khali). According
to the last census of 2000 in Sana'a and of 2005 in Aden and
taking into consideration the annual rate of increase, the
population of the Republic of Yemen is about 22.500.000.
Concerning the physical structure the Republic
of Yemen can be divided into five regions:
- The Plateau
- The Costal
- The Ruba
- The Yemeni
The Mountainous Region of Yemen was
created due to the African split which occurred by the drift
apart of the African and the Asian continents and hence formed
the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden Height. This Height is
gradually rising from 1000 to 3600m as the peak of the Mount
Nabi Shuaib reaches 3666m, which is the highest peak of the
Arabian Peninsula and the Sham countries.
The distribution line of water derived from these
mountains from where water runs to the East, West, North and
South. The main Wadies (canyons) are:
- The Wadies
running water to the Red Sea: Wadi Harad, Wadi Mour, Wadi
Wadi Rama, Wadi Shebam, Wadi Zabid, Wadi Mawza and Wadi
- The Wadies
pouring in the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea: Wadi Tuban,
Wadi Bana, Wadi Ahur and Wadi Hadramaut,
- The Wadies
sloping to the East: Wadi Khabb, Wadi Al-Jawf and Wadi Adhan
- The Wadies
sloping to the North East and North West are: Wadi Harib,
Markha, Wadi Jardan, Wadi Aiot Al-Sayer, Wadi Ramah and Wadi
chain in its longest extension is permeated by plain lowlands
and beds forming vast areas between the mountains forming
blockades for "syol" rushing floods and beds dams for feeds
through channels to irrigate vast agricultural areas, the main
of these lowlands are: Sa'da Lowland, Al-Bon Lowland, the bed of
Sana'a, Jahran Lowland, between Ibb & Dhamar, Al-Hoban Lowland
(in Taiz), Wadi Al-Hadramaut and Wadi Baihan in Shabwa, Harz
Lowland (Hadramaut), Aiwa Lowland (Hadramaut) and Shuaith
Lowland (in Al-Mahara).
The Plateau Region is situated in the East of the Mountainous
Heights and parallel to it but it is expanded more towards the
Ruba Al-Khali and gradually begins to descend. Its maximum
height is 1000m. and it includes the Sa'da Region, Al-Jawf
Province, Shabwa Province, as well as Hadramaut and Al-Mahra
It is formed from hill rocks and water slopes
to it from the Mountainous Area. Its edges are interweaved to
the Ruba Al-Khali from the North.
The Costal Region includes the plan coast of the Red Sea, the
Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea. They are linked to each other
forming a costal strip that extends from the border of the
Sultanate of Oman to the South West towards the Bab Al-Mandab
Straight and turns into the direction of the Saudi Arabian
border. Its length is nearly 2000km. The width of this area
varies between 30 and 60km.
The Ruba Al-Khali Region is part of the desert region of Yemen
which is permeated by some land plants and is especially in the
edges intercepted with the Plateau Region through the seasonal
wadies and sand routes.
The names of the Ruba al-Kali Region were
numerous throughout the historical periods of Yemen. Thus we
find it named the 'Quivering Sea',
the 'Clear Sea', the 'Great Yemeni Desert', the 'Cruvilineal
Desert; etc.. And whenever we go far inside the Ruba Al-Khali
the plant life and waters become rare and the moveable sand
dunes increase, which vanishes the features and traces of this
The Yemen Isles Group is
scattered in the sea zone of Yemen in the Red Sea and in the
Arabian Sea and has its own climate, weather and environment as
well as its own natural reliefs and formations. Most of the
islands are located in the Red Sea and distributed along the
Yemeni coast forming an archipelago. The main and largest one is
Kamaran Island which is inhabited by people and has some rare
animals. To the North of it lay the Islands of Baklan, Al-Tair
and Al-Fashit and to the South of Kamaran Island lay Hanesh
Al-Kabeer and Hanesh Al-Saquir Islands. The Island of Mayoon
"Tarim" divides the Bab Al-Mandab Straight into two parts.
The Yemeni islands in the Arabian Sea are
found close to each other and the most known of them is Socotra
Island of Andem and Dam Al-Akhwan where olibanum medicinals,
incenses and dyes are produced, some of which are used for
decoration. Also found on this island are some animals of
Near Socotra Island there is also a group of
small isles, the main of which is the Island of Abdel Kuri and
the Islands of the Two Brother (Samha & Darsa).
Yemen's climate differs from region to region
according to their reliefs and their nearness to the equator.
The climate degrades from the hot and humid orbital climate to
In general, the
Republic of Yemen is distanced by the high temperature in
the coastal regions and by the high rate of humidity in the
summer and by a moderate water temperature.
But in the
internal and in the mountainous regions the climate is marked by
moderate temperatures in the summer and cold temperatures in the
LANGUAGE AND RELIGION:
language of the Republic of Yemen is Arabic and Islam is the
official religion. Still, there is also a minority of Jewish
living in the North of Yemen enjoying all citizens' rights which
are guaranteed by Islam and by the Yemeni Constitution.
The Republic of
Yemen is an Islamic, Arab state.
system is constituted of several authorities of the state
insinuated from the Constitution. These authorities are:
The Council of Representative, which is
the legislative body.
The Presidential Council, which is the
The Council of Ministers, which is also
the executive Authority.
Judiciary and General Prosecution: the
Judiciary is an independent authority in performing its duties.
The Yemeni constitution also carries the
principles of Separation of Power between the authorities and
the Yemeni Charter attributes that "The people own the power and
its resource and practice is directly through referendum and
general elections, as well as carrying it in an indirect way
through the legislative, executive and judicial bodies and
through the locally elected councils."
The local currency of the Republic of Yemen
is the "Rial". 1 Rial equals 100 Fils.
Work in the
government offices and banks commences daily from 08.00 am to
14.00 pm. It is to be noted that exchange services close at
12.00 noon. Commercial places open for business from 08.00 am to
- 22 May
- Unification day (Sana'a & Aden in 1990)
- 26 September
- Northern Revaluation (in 1962) against Imams
- 14 October
- Southern Revaluation (in 1963) against British
- 30 November
- Exiting a last British people
- 01 January
- Happy New Year
- Arabic New
- According the Islamic canon
Alfedr (6 Days)
- According the Islamic canon
Alatheha (6 Days) -
According the Islamic canon
It is possible to
enter the Republic of Yemen through the following
airports and entrances:
By air: Sana'a Airport, Aden Airport, Hodeidah
Airport, Al-Rayan Airport and Taiz Airport, By
sea: Aden Seaport, Hodeidah Seaport, Al-Mokha Seaport, Mukalla
Seaport and Al-Salif Seaport.
By land: Harad and Al-Buq crossing in the North
and Hadrout crossing in the East.
The Yemeni human
being history has developed in line with the general history of
the development of humanity through its different decades.
But the Yemen's
history is characterized by specialities in this regard. The
practical grounds which fostered forward those special
characteristics were represented by the imported geographical
situation of Yemen, the various climatic circumstances and its
dominance over the old world trade path through which Yemen
emerged as one of the old centers of human civilization.
civilization models prospered in the southern part of the
Arabian Peninsula and the old Yemeni civilization reached a high
standard of development and splendor which made the Romans and
Greece give that land of civilization the name "Arabia Felix".
And along the way of the famous olibanum, incense and spices and
the eastern wadies over locking to it flashed civilizations of
Sheba, Main Hadramaut) (Qataban) (Ausan) since the First