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About Yemen:-


The Republic of Yemen is situated in the South of the Arabian Peninsula between the latitudes 12-20 of the Northern Hemisphere and the longitudes 41-54 East of Greenwich. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is situated to the North of Yemen, to the South of the Republic is the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean, in the West the Red Sea. The Sultanate of Oman borders the Republic of Yemen to the East, which also stretches to the Ruba Al-Khali (the Empty Quarter).


Area & Population:

The area of the Republic of Yemen covers 555.000 km2 (excluding the Ruba Al-Khali). According to the last census of 2000 in Sana'a and of 2005 in Aden and taking into consideration the annual rate of increase, the population of the Republic of Yemen is about 22.500.000.


The Physical Distribution:

Concerning the physical structure the Republic of Yemen can be divided into five regions:

           - The Mountainous Region

                 - The Plateau Region

                 - The Costal Region

                 - The Ruba Al-Khali Region

                 - The Yemeni Isles Group


Firstly: The Mountainous Region of Yemen was created due to the African split which occurred by the drift apart of the African and the Asian continents and hence formed the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden Height. This Height is gradually rising from 1000 to 3600m as the peak of the Mount Nabi Shuaib reaches 3666m, which is the highest peak of the Arabian Peninsula and the Sham countries.


The distribution line of water derived from these mountains from where water runs to the East, West, North and South. The main Wadies (canyons) are:


- The Wadies running water to the Red Sea: Wadi Harad, Wadi Mour, Wadi Surdud, 

   Wadi Rama, Wadi Shebam, Wadi Zabid, Wadi Mawza and Wadi Resiyan,

- The Wadies pouring in the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea: Wadi Tuban,

   Wadi Bana, Wadi Ahur and Wadi Hadramaut,

- The Wadies sloping to the East: Wadi Khabb, Wadi Al-Jawf and Wadi Adhan

- The Wadies sloping to the North East and North West are: Wadi Harib,

   Wadi Markha, Wadi Jardan, Wadi Aiot Al-Sayer, Wadi Ramah and Wadi Shuaith.


     The mountain chain in its longest extension is permeated by plain lowlands and beds forming vast areas between the mountains forming blockades for "syol" rushing floods and beds dams for feeds through channels to irrigate vast agricultural areas, the main of these lowlands are: Sa'da Lowland, Al-Bon Lowland, the bed of Sana'a, Jahran Lowland, between Ibb & Dhamar, Al-Hoban Lowland (in Taiz), Wadi Al-Hadramaut and Wadi Baihan in Shabwa, Harz Lowland (Hadramaut), Aiwa Lowland (Hadramaut) and Shuaith Lowland (in Al-Mahara).


Secondly: The Plateau Region is situated in the East of the Mountainous Heights and parallel to it but it is expanded more towards the Ruba Al-Khali and gradually begins to descend. Its maximum height is 1000m. and it includes the Sa'da Region, Al-Jawf Province, Shabwa Province, as well as Hadramaut and Al-Mahra Provinces.

It is formed from hill rocks and water slopes to it from the Mountainous Area. Its edges are interweaved to the Ruba Al-Khali from the North.


Thirdly: The Costal Region includes the plan coast of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea. They are linked to each other forming a costal strip that extends from the  border of the Sultanate of Oman to the South West towards the Bab Al-Mandab Straight and turns into the direction of the Saudi Arabian border. Its length is nearly 2000km. The width of this area varies between 30 and 60km.


Fourthly: The Ruba Al-Khali Region is part of the desert region of Yemen which is permeated by some land plants and is especially in the edges intercepted with the Plateau Region through the seasonal wadies and sand routes.

The names of the Ruba al-Kali Region were numerous throughout the historical periods of Yemen. Thus we find it named the 'Quivering Sea', the 'Clear Sea', the 'Great Yemeni Desert', the 'Cruvilineal Desert; etc.. And whenever we go far inside the Ruba Al-Khali the plant life and waters become rare and the moveable sand dunes increase, which vanishes the features and traces of this desert.


Fifthly: The Yemen Isles Group is scattered in the sea zone of Yemen in the Red Sea and in the Arabian Sea and has its own climate, weather and environment as well as its own natural reliefs and formations. Most of the islands are located in the Red Sea and distributed along the Yemeni coast forming an archipelago. The main and largest one is Kamaran Island which is inhabited by people and has some rare animals. To the North of it lay the Islands of Baklan, Al-Tair and Al-Fashit and to the South of Kamaran Island lay Hanesh Al-Kabeer and Hanesh Al-Saquir Islands. The Island of Mayoon "Tarim" divides the Bab Al-Mandab Straight into two parts.


The Yemeni islands in the Arabian Sea are found close to each other and the most known of them is Socotra Island of Andem and Dam Al-Akhwan where olibanum medicinals, incenses and dyes are produced, some of which are used for decoration. Also found on this island are some animals of African origin.

Near Socotra Island there is also a group of small isles, the main of which is the Island of Abdel Kuri and the Islands of the Two Brother (Samha & Darsa).



Yemen's climate differs from region to region according to their reliefs and their nearness to the equator. The climate degrades from the hot and humid orbital climate to cold climate.

In general, the Republic of Yemen is distanced by the high temperature in the coastal regions and by the high rate of humidity in the summer and by a moderate water temperature.

But in the internal and in the mountainous regions the climate is marked by moderate temperatures in the summer and cold temperatures in the water.



The official language of the Republic of Yemen is Arabic and Islam is the official religion. Still, there is also a minority of Jewish living in the North of Yemen enjoying all citizens' rights which are guaranteed by Islam and by the Yemeni Constitution.



The Republic of Yemen is an Islamic, Arab state.

Its political system is constituted of several authorities of the state insinuated from the Constitution. These authorities are:

                    The Council of Representative, which is the legislative body.

                    The Presidential Council, which is the executive authority. 

                    The Council of Ministers, which is also the executive Authority.

Judiciary and General Prosecution: the Judiciary is an independent authority in performing its duties.

     The Yemeni constitution also carries the principles of Separation of Power between the authorities and the Yemeni Charter attributes that "The people own the power and its resource and practice is directly through referendum and general elections, as well as carrying it in an indirect way through the legislative, executive and judicial bodies and through the locally elected councils."



The local currency of the Republic of Yemen is the "Rial". 1 Rial equals 100 Fils.



Work in the government offices and banks commences daily from 08.00 am to 14.00 pm. It is to be noted that exchange services close at 12.00 noon. Commercial places open for business from 08.00 am to 09.00 pm.



     -  22 May                                  - Unification day (Sana'a & Aden in 1990)

     -  26 September                        - Northern Revaluation (in 1962) against Imams

     -  14 October                            -  Southern Revaluation (in 1963) against British

     -  30 November                        -  Exiting a last British people

     -  01 January                            -  Happy New Year

     -  Arabic New Year                  -  According the Islamic canon

     -  Eiad  Alfedr (6 Days)           -  According the Islamic canon

     -  Eiad  Alatheha (6 Days)       -  According the Islamic canon



It is possible to enter the Republic of Yemen through the following airports and entrances:

By air: Sana'a Airport, Aden Airport, Hodeidah Airport, Al-Rayan Airport and Taiz Airport, By sea: Aden Seaport, Hodeidah Seaport, Al-Mokha Seaport, Mukalla Seaport and Al-Salif Seaport.

By land: Harad and Al-Buq crossing in the North and Hadrout crossing in the East.     



The Yemeni human being history has developed in line with the general history of the development of humanity through its different decades.

But the Yemen's history is characterized by specialities in this regard. The practical grounds which fostered forward those special characteristics were represented by the imported geographical situation of Yemen, the various climatic circumstances and its dominance over the old world trade path through which Yemen emerged as one of the old centers of human civilization.

A developed civilization models prospered in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula and the old Yemeni civilization reached a high standard of development and splendor which made the Romans and Greece give that land of civilization the name "Arabia Felix". And along the way of the famous olibanum, incense and spices and the eastern wadies over locking to it flashed civilizations of Sheba, Main Hadramaut) (Qataban) (Ausan) since the First Thousand B.C.




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About Yemen

  * Sana'a Area

  * Northern Y.

  * Southren Y.

  * Eastren Y.

  * Westren Y.

  * Y. Islands


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                                           Old Sana'a City - R. of  Yemen         Designed by: Ahmed Lutf ALSunidar